Page 10 - A Fortiori Logic: Innovations, History and Assessments
P. 10


4 AVI SION / A FORTIORI LOGIC



7.  A fortiori in the Talmud .......................................................................................................... 129 
1.  Brief history of a fortiori ..................................................................................................... 129 
2.  A brief course in the relevant logic ..................................................................................... 132 
3.  A fresh analysis of the Mishna Baba Qama 2:5 .................................................................. 139 
4.  A logician’s reading of Numbers 12:14-15 ......................................................................... 152 
5.  A critique of the Gemara in Baba Qama 25a....................................................................... 155 
6.  A slightly different reading of the Gemara .......................................................................... 165 
8.  In the Talmud, continued ......................................................................................................... 167 
1.  Natural, conventional or revealed? ...................................................................................... 167 
2.  Measure for measure ........................................................................................................... 171 
3.  The dayo principle in formal terms ..................................................................................... 176 
4.  The human element ............................................................................................................. 183 
5.  Qal vachomer without dayo................................................................................................. 186 
6.  Three additional Gemara arguments ................................................................................... 190 
7.  Assessment of the Talmud’s logic ....................................................................................... 202 
8.  The syllogistic Midot ........................................................................................................... 207 
9.  Historical questions ............................................................................................................. 209 
9.  Post-Talmudic rabbis ............................................................................................................... 211 
1.  Logic and history issues ...................................................................................................... 211 
2.  Philo of Alexandria ............................................................................................................. 212 
3.  Sifra ..................................................................................................................................... 215 
4.  The Korach arguments ........................................................................................................ 218 
5.  Saadia Gaon ......................................................................................................................... 221 
6.  Rashi and Tosafot ................................................................................................................ 222 
7.  Kol zeh assim ...................................................................................................................... 224 
8.  Maimonides ......................................................................................................................... 230 
9.  More on medieval authors ................................................................................................... 234 
10.  Moshe Chaim Luzzatto ................................................................................................... 238 
11.  More research is needed .................................................................................................. 242 
10.  A fortiori in the Christian Bible ........................................................................................... 244 
1.  In the Christian Bible .......................................................................................................... 244 
2.  Jesus of Nazareth ................................................................................................................. 248 
3.  Paul of Tarsus ...................................................................................................................... 253 
4.  In later Christian discourse .................................................................................................. 264 
5.  Additional findings .............................................................................................................. 265 
11.  Islamic ‘logic’ ...................................................................................................................... 268 
1.  Logic in the Koran ............................................................................................................... 268 
2.  About the Koran .................................................................................................................. 276 
3.  Logic in the hadiths ............................................................................................................. 281 
4.  A fortiori in fiqh, based on Hallaq ....................................................................................... 285 
5.  Other presentations and issues ............................................................................................. 296 
6.  The dayo principle and more ............................................................................................... 304 
7.  The essence of Islamic discourse ........................................................................................ 308 
12.  A fortiori in China and India ............................................................................................... 316 
1.  Zen logic in general ............................................................................................................. 316 
2.  A fortiori use in Zen ............................................................................................................ 321 
3.  The Indian kaimutika ........................................................................................................... 323 
PART III – MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY AUTHORS ............................................... 326 
13.  Moses Mielziner .................................................................................................................. 326 
1.  Description of the argument ................................................................................................ 326 
2.  Structural analyses ............................................................................................................... 328 
3.  Concerning the jus talionis .................................................................................................. 329 
4.  Restrictions and refutations ................................................................................................. 331 

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