Page 10 - The Logic of Causation
P. 10


Phase I: Macroanalysis. Starting with the paradigm of causation, its most obvious and
strongest form, we can by abstraction of its defining components distinguish four genera of
causation, or generic determinations, namely: complete, partial, necessary and contingent
causation. When these genera and their negations are combined together in every which
way, and tested for consistency, it is found that only four species of causation, or specific
determinations, remain conceivable. The concept of causation thus gives rise to a number
of positive and negative propositional forms, which can be studied in detail with relative
ease because they are compounds of conjunctive and conditional propositions whose
properties are already well known to logicians.
The logical relations (oppositions) between the various determinations (and their
negations) are investigated, as well as their respective implications (eductions). Thereafter,
their interactions (in syllogistic reasoning) are treated in the most rigorous manner. The
main question we try to answer here is: is (or when is) the cause of a cause of something
itself a cause of that thing, and if so to what degree? The figures and moods of positive
causative syllogism are listed exhaustively; and the resulting arguments validated or
invalidated, as the case may be. In this context, a general and sure method of evaluation
called ‘matricial analysis’ (macroanalysis) is introduced. Because this (initial) method is
cumbersome, it is used as little as possible – the remaining cases being evaluated by means
of reduction.

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